Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) - Level II

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to meet the industrial qualification requirements for Ultrasonic Examination using the Time of Flight Diffraction technique. The training covers transducer selection, standardization, inspection design, encoding data, data evaluation and interpretation of data including flaw characterization and through wall height measuring. The course satisfies the training hours needed for Level II certification in accordance with SNT-TC-1A, CP-189.

Course Duration: 40 Total Hours

Prerequisite: Students should have an unrestricted UT Level 2.


COURSE OUTLINE

1. INTRODUCTION

  • Terminology of TOFD

  • History of TOFD (e.g., M.G. Silk)

  • Responsibilities of levels of certification

2. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TOFD

  • Review of ultrasonic wave theory, refracted longitudinal waves

  • Introduction to TOFD concepts and theory

  • Technique limitations

3. EQUIPMENT

3.1 COMPUTER BASED SYSTEMS

  • Processors

  • Control panel including input and output sockets

  • Block diagram showing basic internal circuit modules

  • Portable battery-operated versus full computer-based systems

3.2 BEAM PROFILE TOOLS 3.2.1 Probe center separation (PCS) calculators for FLAT material/components

  • Probe center separation (PCS) calculators for CURVE surfaces

  • Beam spread effects and control

  • Multiple zone coverage and limitations

3.3 PROBES

  • Composite materials

  • Damping characteristics

  • Selection of frequency and diameter

3.4 WEDGES

  • Incident and refracted angle selections

  • High-temperature applications

3.5 SCANNERS

  • Mechanized

  • Manual

4. TESTING TECHNIQUES

  • Line scans (single tandem probe setups)

  • Line scans (multiple probe setups)

  • Raster scans

5. CALIBRATION

  • Material velocity calculations

  • Combined probe delay(s) calculation(s)

  • Digitization rates and sampling

  • Signal averaging

  • Pulse width control

  • PCS and angle selection

  • Sensitivity

  • Pre-amplifiers

  • Effects of curvature

6. DATA COLLECTION

  • Single probe setups

  • Multiple probe setups

  • Non-encoded scans (Time-based data storage)

  • Encoded scans (Line scans and Raster scans)

  • Probe offsets and indexing

7. PROCEDURES

7.1 SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS

  • Material evaluations

    • Base material scans

  • Weld inspections

    • Detection and evaluation of fabrication welding flaws

    • Detection and evaluation of in-service cracking

    • Detection of volumetric loss such as weld root erosion and partial penetration weld dimensional verifications

    • Geometric limitations

    • Cladding thickness and integrity evaluations

  • Complex geometries

    • Transitions, nozzles, branch connections, tees, saddles, etc.

7.2 DATA PRESENTATIONS

  • Standard (A-scan, D-scan)

  • Other (B-scan, C-scan)

  • Data evaluation

    • Codes/standards/specifications

    • Flaw characterization

    • Flaw dimensioning

    • Geometry

    • Software tools

      • Linearization

      • Lateral/back wall straightening and removal

      • Synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT)

      • Spectrum processing

      • Curved surface compensation

    • Parabolic cursor(s)

  • Reporting

    • Imaging outputs

    • Onboard reporting tools

    • Plotting

8. TRAINING REFERENCES FOR TOFD

  • ASNT Level II Study Guide: Ultrasonic Method. Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. Latest edition.

  • ASNT Questions and Answers Book: Ultrasonic Testing Method. Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. Latest edition.

  • Marks, P.T. Ultrasonic Testing Classroom Training Book (PTP Series). Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 2007.

  • Dube, N., ed. Introduction to Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Application: R/T Tech. Guideline. Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT. 2004. 

  • Dube, N., Advances in Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Applications: Waltham, MA: Olympus NDT. 2007

  • Workman, G.L. and D. Kishoni, tech. eds., P.O. Moore, ed. Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition: Volume 7, Ultrasonic Testing. Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 2007.


REGISTRATION

Class size is limited. This allows for maximum utilization of course time,
hands on instruction, and equipment.

EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE. DELIVERED.

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How our courses can be customized to meet your specific requirements!


Training at your facility or our St. Louis location

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TESTIMONIALS FROM STUDENTS

“Instructor kept class involved. Teaching style was great.” - April H.

“I highly recommend all my RT inspectors to attend QTS RAD Safety. Ken put on one of the best 40 hour classroom training I have attended over the past 12 years!” - Nick P.

“Ken was an amazing teacher really kept it “exciting”. I can’t recommend him enough.” - Chris

“Another great class. I plan to come back on my own to take my practical and Phased Array. Thank you!” - Chris H.

“The instructor was willing to stay after class to help with individual questions. This is very helpful because everyone has different equipment and work types.” - Jason S.

“Overall I feel as if I learned a lot this week. I feel much more confident scanning with the background knowledge. I would highly recommend Max as a great teacher for this course.” - Emily L.

“The support from Justin and Ken has been fantastic. I have also worked with Matt, MT inspector, and he is very prompt, courteous, very professional and good to work with. I appreciate the help.” - Roger B.

“The real world inspection methods were a great idea. It was bit of a hiccup when Max had to leave for a meeting on day 2. All in all he did a great job covering everything and answering all questions we had. Subject matter was on point and had a nice flow daily. Advice hold on to this trainer and maybe give him a raise!” - Jason A.

‘Max is a very good instructor. He seems to know the material well and did a very good job explaining the different indications and terminology.’ - Joe B.